Systematic LPAT Reading/Listening Course--Chapter 4: Identify referents and read/listen across the lines (Based on LPAT past paper)
16-A4-page chapter with the following STEP-BY-STEP PROCESS, arranged FROM EASY TO CHALLENGING, written based on LPAT past paper research and analysis:
1. Understand the basics of reference and referents. Pronouns either refer to theparticipants in the discourse (e.g. I, you ) or to someone or something mentioned elsewhere inthe discourse (e.g. she, it, this ).
2. Personal pronouns are very common referring expressions. Pay attention to theirgrammaticality: we, you, they, us, them, these, those are plural; whereas it, this, that aresingular. ‘It’ mostly refer to inanimate things; whereas ‘they’ can refer to both animate andinanimate things. ‘You’ can be singular or plural.
3. When you are asked to identify the referent, make sure your answer is complete andspecific. You can do so by substituting your answer back into the text and see is the meaning iscomplete and the whole sentence makes sense. Be careful: words like 'the' or 'their' are very important and may change the meaning here.
4. Beware of the different grammatical implications of possessive pronouns andpossessive adjectives. For possessive adjectives, answer must contain an apostrophe; Forpossessive pronouns, the answer must be a noun.
5. Understand grammatical substitution.
6. Understand grammatical ellipsis.
7. Understand grammatical reference.
8. Understand that pronouns function as a noun phrase, and so your answer must be a noun/ gerund/ noun phrase/ noun clause, not a clause. In some cases, the pronoun refers not toa thing, animal or person, but a situation, fact or idea.
9. Referring expressions can point backwards or forwards.
10. Not only can pronouns be used as referring phrases, synonyms, paraphrases, metonyms and hyponyms,superordinate can also be used as referring phrases.
11. There are two situations in which identifying referents may be difficult. In these cases, don’t just focus on the immediate vicinity of keywords and specific details, gather widercontextual clues from other sentences or even other paragraphs.
Each of the above steps comes with its own EXPLANATION, EXAMPLE AND PRACTICE inspired by LPAT questions.
After reading this chapter, you will become more proficient at reading across lines and paragraphs, understanding the internal structure and coherence of the text, recognizing how ideas unfold and build upon each other.
The LPAT Challenge
Reading and Listening, especially dealing with the challenging LPAT-level texts and questions, is not something that people are naturally born to do. We found out that there isn’t many courses which focuses on LPAT Reading/Listening, and that’s why we have created this one.
What you get
Our Cambridge-educated, B.A. and B.Ed. degree holder specializing in English language education with local primary and secondary teaching experience will guide you through your LPAT Reading text prep STEP BY STEP by teaching you the most STRATEGIC approach to improving your Reading skills. Each strategy is SUBDIVIDED INTO SEVERAL STEPS, arranged FROM EASY TO CHALLENGING, each with its own EXPLANATION, EXAMPLE AND PRACTICE inspired by LPAT questions.
How this helps
You can be guided to build you LPAT Reading/Listening skills step by step so you can have a starting point even if you are very weak or very strong. Going through these steps, you will become more and more ready for LPAT because there are sufficient examples and practice.
Bonus tips and answer keys provided. It may also help you tackle the grammar parts of LPAT, and teach reading more explicitly in your own lessons.
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此刻， LPAT理想 近在眼前
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